Navigating the world of mortgage loan types – fixed rate, adjustable rate, and more


Navigating the complex world of mortgage loans can be a daunting task. With so many loan types, from fixed rate to adjustable rate, government-backed loans, conforming loans, and more, it can feel like a labyrinth to prospective homeowners. This article aims to provide a comprehensive guide that will equip you with the necessary knowledge to make an informed decision about mortgage loans by focusing on specific details of each type.

#1 Fixed Rate Mortgage

A fixed-rate mortgage is the most straightforward and common mortgage type. With a fixed-rate mortgage, the interest rate and your monthly payment remain unvarying for the life of the loan- typically 15 or 30 years. This predictability makes budget planning easier for homeowners. On the downside, fixed-rate loans often come with a higher interest rate compared to other types, but that’s the price for stability.

#2 Adjustable-Rate Mortgage (ARM)

Opposite to the fixed-rate mortgage, the Adjustable-Rate Mortgage has an interest rate that can vary over time. Most ARMs come with an initial fixed-rate period, usually 5, 7, or 10 years. After this period, the rate has annual adjustments based on a benchmark index plus an additional spread, known as the margin. ARMs can be beneficial if you plan to sell the house before the adjustable period begins; however, if not, you may be in for unpredictable rate changes.

#3 Conventional Loan

Conventional loans are not guaranteed by any government agency and may be either fixed or adjustable rate. Conventional loans often require a higher down payment (often 20%), a strong credit score, and steady income. However, they offer more flexibility in terms like loan size and terms and do not require you to pay for mortgage insurance if your down payment is 20% or more.

#4 Government-Insured Loans

This category of home loans includes three major types: Federal Housing Administration (FHA loans), U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA loans) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA loans).

– FHA Loans: These are designed for low-to-moderate-income borrowers who may have lower than average credit scores. They require a lower minimum down payment and credit scores compared to conventional loans.

– VA Loans: Designed for veterans and their spouses, VA loans come with competitive interest rates, often require no down payment or private mortgage insurance (PMI), and may allow for a higher debt-to-income ratio.

– USDA loans: for rural and suburban homebuyers, USDA loans offer 100% financing, meaning no down payment is required, and reduced mortgage insurance premiums.

#5 Jumbo Loans

Jumbo Mortgages or non-conforming mortgages are loans that exceed the conventional loan limit set by the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA). Because of the larger loan amounts, jumbo loans have stricter requirements regarding credit score and down payment.

#6 Interest-Only Mortgage

In an interest-only mortgage, you’re only required to pay interest for a specific time, typically 5-10 years. After the interest-only period is over, the loan converts to a standard mortgage. This type could be potentially useful for somebody with an irregular income, yet it bears the risk of a substantial increase in payments once the principal repayment period begins.


Knowing what mortgage loan options are available to you is a key step in the homebuying process. If you’re feeling overwhelmed, it may be helpful to speak with a mortgage broker or financial advisor who can guide you based on your specific circumstances. Remember, the best type of mortgage for you depends on many factors, including your financial situation, how long you plan to stay in the property, and your level of tolerance for risk.

Happy homebuying!

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